Mahapralaya, an article by Dr. Prithwindranath Mukherjee

Dear Friends,

20 October 2011 marks the seventy-fifth birth anniversary of our most adored and revered Dr. Prithwindranath Mukherjee. An extraordinary scholar, a researcher par excellence and above all, a most wonderful human being, he has been a pillar of support and inspiration for us ever since the inception of Overman Foundation.

Today, on the occasion of his birthday, we are publishing a gem of an article penned by Dr. Mukherjee titled ‘Mahapralaya’ based on the early years of freedom struggle. We can vouch for the fact that seldom do we come across such extraordinarily researched articles. And it is our privilege that Dr. Mukherjee has permitted us to publish it in the forum of Overman Foundation.

With warm regards,

Anurag Banerjee

Founder,

Overman Foundation.

                                                    ***

                                         Mahapralaya

                                                    Prithwindranath Mukherjee

 

“There will be an upheaval.[i] There are signs to indicate its coming.

The year 1906 completes  5000 years of Kaliyuga,

and a new age has begun with the year 1907.

The upheaval will have developed well enough to be visible to all.

It will be complete in a further period of four to five years.

 

“The upheaval will be one of a revolutionary change, a great step;

the low will be raised and the high brought down.

There will be change, change, everywhere—

change in Government, change in our people;

new resolves, new thoughts, new ways for all actions.”

Sri Aurobindo

(Interview from India, Tamil weekly, 18 September 1909)[ii]

I- THE QUESTION

The earliest known intimation about the oncoming World War seems to have been proclaimed only in 1911, by Friedrich Bernhardi (1849-1930) in his bellicose book[i] : this Prussian general and historian looked upon war as “the law of the struggle for existence” or “a divine business”. An interview in September 1909 reveals that Sri Aurobindo spoke of “upheaval”, foreseeing   happenings pretty close to a mahâpralaya.  Does not this bring to the mind – of people familiar with strides of history around Sri Aurobindo – flashes of events preceding and succeeding this visionary uttering ? We must right now look into a number of events preceding this interview, before examining the succession of developments in connection with this prophecy.

                                   II- PRECEDING EVENTS

In the context of events preceding Sri Aurobindo’s interview in 1909, we turn at random to Pandit Mokshada Charan Samadhyayi (1867-1924): this restless Brahman represented a leading figure of the Jugantar movement. Specialist of the Samaveda, he had spent long years in Benares to have a genuine schooling in Sanskrit classics and Vedic texts. G.C. Denham of the central Criminal Intelligence Department promptly observed : “The position of Benares as a centre of revolutionary activity is very similar to the position which it holds in the religious life of the Hindu inhabitants of India.”[ii] He mentioned it to have been a retreat for political refugees and, since the visit of B.G. Tilak in 1900, followed by the issuing of the Kalidas newspaper, Benares was becoming a congenial spot for seditious activities. 

Jatindra Mukherjee’s revolutionary associate Preonath Karar of Serampore – friend of Hrishikesh Kanjilal of Calcutta Anushilan and Mokshada – had founded an Ashram at Puri in 1900; in contact with Lokamanya Tilak,  it had been helping his initiative to turn Benares and other Hindu shrines into seats of Extremist politics. Shortly before the launching of the daily Jugantar at a ceremony at Benares, Puri had instituted a religious procession in celebration of the advent of the New Era (yuga+antar).  Sealy in his Report admitted : “It would be extremely rash to argue that the place has not been freely used by the anarchist for sealing the compact of many a vow against the Government or that it has not been a recognised place of refuge for the fugitive from justice or surveillance by the police.”[iii] Amarendra’s cousin, Natabihari Chatterjee (son-in-law of the great Surendranath Banerjee), was munsif at Cuttack; another cousin, Dhiren Mukherjee, taught at the Ravenshaw Collegeate School. Amarendra had a free access not only to the local patriots but, also, to the headmaster of this School (later Principal of the Ravenshaw College), Khirodchandra Ray Chaudhuri, who edited and published the “scurrilous” (to quote Sealy) daily, Star of Utkal.  Khirodchandra’s son, Sukumar, practised as a barrister atCuttack and had married a daughter of Dr Aghore Nath Chatterjee “who was deported by the Nizam of Hyderabad for intriguing against the British Government.”

Several amongst Bengalis living in Benares were connected with the revolutionary movement in Calcutta, principally through a certain Suranath Bhaduri : this curious character was ultimately concerned in the conspiracy in Calcutta  and afterwards he was suspected of selling information to the authorities. “One of the pioneers of nationalism in Benares,” in about 1902, Somnath  published a book called Gangajal[iv].  It conveyed seditious catechism under the guise of religion. The writer, addressing Sri Krishna prays, “The mlechhas[v] are carrying away to their own country the riches and intelligence of India, and the Vedas (sacred books) and the religion of India are being trampled under the feet of foreign nations. Wilt thou come and uproot the mlechas and make India free ?” To this Sri Krishna replies, “I have come, descending upon India. The auspicious hour is here; in my name advance boldly like heroes.” Denham reminded that the reference here was to Sri Krishna’s promise in the Bhagavad Gita, the very  verse which Suranath was to get adopted  as the motto of the revolutionary Jugantar newspaper of Calcutta, early March 1906. Mokshada was Suranath’s associate.[vi]

As we have seen, before this paper – Jugantar [yuga= epoch+ antara=ending, shifting]appeared, Mokshada sent Preonath Karar to Benares and, with the help of Suranath and Hrishikesh Kanjilal of the Calcutta Anushilan Samiti convened a public meeting as well as a meeting of pundits : on quoting from Hindu Astrology and Astronomy, they  announced that the sinful Iron Age (kali) was over and it was henceforth the dawn of  Yugantar or the dvapar-yuga. Hrishikesh further undertook a tour of pilgrimage to proclaim the advent of the New Age,  inciting  sannyasis to join an imminent rebellion against the English.[vii]

By September 1905,  inspired by Sri Aurobindo,  several ministers of Hindu religion had been spreading anti-Partition agitation. A.C. Banerji, Barrister-at-Law from Santipur in Nadia and a friend of Jatindra Mukherjee, obtained collaboration of the Nabadwip Pundits and Goswamis :  their influence, throughout India, had been rousing the religious scruples of both Hindus and Muslims against the impurity in the manufacture of salt and sugar, as much as their boycott of foreign goods. As we shall presently see, Mokshada was a close collaborator of Kartik Datta hailing also from Santipur.  Led by Mokshada, the Bhatpara Pundits in the 24 Parganas also sent out missionaries to indoctrinate their colleagues in Upper India. At Puri in Orissa, one hundred itinerant monks took the oath of preaching Swadeshi. On 28 September 1905, fifty thousand people before the Calcutta Kali temple took the vow of abstaining from purchasing foreign goods. The Ramakrishna Mission and the Arya Samaj considerably helped spreading this doctrine.[viii]

Denham watched intently Mokshada’s shuttling between Benares and Uttarpara College where he was appointed Pundit.  In company of Professor Charu  Chandra Ray, Preonath Karar and Satish Sen,   Mokshada was busy animating  clubs and associations in the region covering Chinsura, Serampore, Chandernagore with the teachings of Bankimchandra Chatterjee (who had lived in the region), Yogendra Vidyabhushan and other contemporary thought leaders. He frequented the well-known revolutionary monk Tarakshepa who, sermoning on the Bhagavad Gita, preached sedition overtly, whose disciple Nanigopal Sengupta was one of Sri Aurobindo’s close associates. At Serampore,  Brahmabandhav Upadhyay was attracted by Mokshada’s ideas on politics, and accepted him as disciple to run the local Brahmacharya Ashram. Simultaneously, informed about a dynamic batch of students in the neighbouring  24 Parganas, Mokshada visited Chingripota, Harinabhi, Kodalia, where Harikumar Chakravarti, Naren Bhattacharya (future M.N. Roy), Saileshwar Bose, Satkari Banerji ran a powerful association. Harikumar was in touch with his cousins, Naren and Phani Chakravarti, who had been to school with Barin Ghose at Deoghar and worked in the bomb factory there, run by Barin and Jatindra Mukherjee. One of Barin’s cousins, Hemendraprasad Ghosh, wrote that Mokshada occupied a room at the Field and Academy founded by Upadhyay, by the side of the Calcutta Anushilan Samiti, at 49 Cornwallis Street : here he knew eminent inmates like Benoykumar Sarkar and Radhakumud Mukherjee. At times, Mokshada shared his room with Naren Bhattacharya and Harikumar, till they found shelter at the main Anushilan building itself, while Naren’s cousin Abi Bhattacharya with adventurous Barin and some other like-minded friends were moving to a centre of their own choice, fed up with the Anushilan disciplines, enhanced by the proximity of Jatindra Banerjee (who was soon to leave Bengal, garbed as Niralamba Swami).[ix]

Mokshada was naturally in close touch with all that was advanced in Indian politics and at the ‘Academy and Art Club’, which was financed by Subodh Mullick,  meeting all the leaders of the new movement. In December 1906, Subodh Mullick convened in his house the first conference of district leaders of the secret association, presided over by P. Mitter and attended by Sri Aurobindo, Bhupendranath Datta, Jatindra Mukherjee, Lalitkumar Chatterjee, among others. “The participants were asked if they had already taken (…) the oath of the party. The form and language of this oath had a denominational touch, based essentially on Hindu belief… In this conference Aurobindo addressed the members and explained the necessity of money – which could, then, be secured only through dacoity. He of course said that whatever money might thus be obtained should be regarded as loan from the victims of the dacoities to be repaid after independence. The suggestion was accepted unanimously. A similar conference was held in 1907 in the same house.”[x] Taking a post of Sanskrit at the National College, Mokshada became Sri Aurobindo’s colleague. Denham believed that it was Mokshada who  incited the strike on the East Indian railway between Howrah and Ondal.

Prosecuted for sedition, when Brahmabandhav Upadhyay died in jail in October 1907, Mokshada looked after Upadhyay’s sarcastically anti-British journal Sandhya.  At this juncture, a few months before the Surat Congress, Suranath formed a central committee at the Sandhya office with the help of his disciple Jatindra Banerjee (who succeeded Upadhyay as editor) and Kartik Datta; Sri Aurobindo, Mokshada, Shamsundar Chakravarti, Tarakshepa, Annada Kaviraj, Jatindra Mukherjee and some others were among the members; they all seemed to share Upadhyay’s political views.[xi] While on 6 December 1907, Barin’s men attempted to wreck with explosives the Lieutenant-Governor’s special train at Naraingarh, on the same evening, arranged by Mokshada,  Naren Bhattacharya, Bhushan Mitra (Gulay) and Sailen Basu  committed a hold-up at Chingripota Railway Station, and were arrested.  Jatindra Mukherjee appointed his friend, Barrister J.N. Roy, to defend them. They got discharged.

Earlier, in 1907, Indra Nandi – in close connection with Sri Aurobindo – sent members of Atmonnati Samiti, including Pabitra Datta and Chuni Mitra, to found at Benares the Matri Sebak Samiti. “This is distinctly suspicious,” mentions the Police report. A few days before Khudiram and Prafulla Chaki set out for Muzaffarpur,  associating with the Jugantar and the Sandhya gangs, in May 1908, Suranath returned from Calcutta to establish a local branch of the Anushilan in Benares, with the help of his “Tantrik disciples” :  Debnarayan Mukherjee, Sudhangshu Mitra and  Sachin Sanyal, a student in the entrance class of the Bengalitola High School. Sachin kept “himself all along in the back ground and printed and circulated widely at Benares a seditious pamphlet on the occasion of the anniversary of Pratapaditya at the instance of the Bengali anarchists, in order to instigate the youths of Benares,” noted Denham. “Suranath induced Jatindra Banerjee and Mokshada to come over to Benares during the Puja holidays.” Mokshada advised the members of the party as to their future course of conduct. “Mokshada and a few other unknown men are trying to unite the extremists and the nationalists into one common bond of partisanship,” wrote Denham. “A plan is also under consideration to get the Mussalmans of Turkey and Persia to prejudice the illiterate Muhammadan mass of this country against the English and to send two or three clever English-educated Bengalis to Kabul in the guise of Mussalman fakirs after making them versed in the Koran, and also to bring up after some time Arabindo Ghose either to Benares or to some other place for a secret consultation between him and Suranath.”[xii]

Raja Sasisekhareswar of Tahirpur, the principal man in the Bharat Dharma Mahamandal, had been fully converted to Suranath’s and Mokshada’s creed. Suranath was trying to influence the Maharaja of Durbhanga through his father, Somanath Bhaduri, Private Secretary to the Prince (who was the General president of the Mahamandal). Also through Amarendra Chatterjee, whose father-in-law, Preonath Banerjee, was the Maharaja’s General manager.[xiii] Shortly before the Maniktala arrests in May 1908, there was a split in the Jugantar, following Barin’s concentration on applied terrorism, leaving the theoretical preparation to others, such as : (a) under  Sri Aurobindo’s guidance, Abi Bhattacharya took over the defunct Navashakti; (b) under Munsiff Abi Chakravarti’s influence, Nikhileshwar Ray Maulik controlled  the Jugantar, shifting its office to 68 Maniktala Street, where Nikhileswar and  Kartik Datta lived. Jatindra Mukherjee served as a link between these different trends. After the Maniktala arrests, the Jugantar articles under his direct influence became even more violent, causing several prosecutions, before collapsing in June 1908. Police Records show  Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray’s eagerness to distribute the Jugantar,  informing the editor that Jatindra Mukherjee knew him personally.

In June 1908, less than two months after the arrest of the Maniktala conspirators, a “new gang” commenced operations on the Eastern Bengal State Railway. The series of outrages began with a bomb thrown into a train. The Police experts held that the bombs used in these occasions were inferior to those prepared by Barin Ghose’s party; instead of dynamite or picric acid, these were coconut shell bombs with a mixture of sulphide of arsenic and chlorate of potash stuffed with bits of broken glass, nails, pins of jute combs, causing great injury on explosion. These outrages continued sporadically till April 1909. The Special Department of the Police traced them to a gang of Brahmans in Bhatpara, led by Kartik Datta and Naren Bhattacharya alias M.N. Roy, advised by Mokshada. On 4 March 1907, Kartik had distinguished himself by leading the attempt to murder a notorious missionary in Nadia. He and Mokshada took part in the dacoities, reported F.C. Daly “to raise funds for political purposes (…), defence of persons under trial in political cases.” Six persons were put on trial before the Special Tribunal of the High Court. Mokshada was one of them. The jury found him “not guilty”: he was acquitted for the second time. “A most dangerous character. He is still keeping up his connection with the most desperate ruffians of the revolutionary party (…) Sub-Editor of the Nayak, at present the most frankly seditious newspaper in Calcutta.”[xiv]

When Nikhileswar was arrested on 23 June 1908, it was Kartik’s turn to assume control of the party in charge of the Jugantar, with the printing press at 28 Shampukur Street. There was a house in Chetla for their secret meetings. Kartik was joined by Keshab De, who was just released after two years of Rigorous Imprisonment for having thrown vitriol during East India Railway strike in 1906. As a direct descendant of the old Jugantar group, Mokshada became their advisor. Several outrages were committed from Chetla, including the Bajitpur robbery (15 August 1908). Important among the participants were Noren Basu, Noren Chatterji, Bepin Ganguli, Annada Kaviraj, Suresh Mitra, Indra Nandi, Jatindra Ray. One of the older organisers of revolutionary work, Bhupati Charan Bose (1864-), son of Uma Charan Bose of Calcutta , was another associate of Kartik Datta and  Mokshada. He was a “well-to-do broker for the German firm of Norlinger & Co” in Calcutta. Kartik moved his headquarters to Telinipara, near Chandernagore, before proceeding to the Bighati dacoity on 16 September 1908.  At Bighati in Hooghly, noted Denham, a rich man opposed to swadeshi was robbed. Immediate arrest of Kartik, Suresh Majumdar, Basanta, Pannalal Chakrabarti and Dhiren Ghosh, followed by the arrest of Mokshada, Suresh Mitra and Pannalal Chatterji (turned approver). Keshab absconded with the booty.  Mokshada had in his possession some part of the ornaments stolen at Bajitpur in Mymensingh; certain jewellery he gave to sell to a goldsmith  tallied in weight and description with a portion of the property stolen. Other participants were : Biren Mallik, Manmohan Barman, and Beharilal Ray.  The Police recognised Mokshada, once more, as “the guru of the band, a recruiting agent, active participant in the dacoity.”

 

                               III—SUCCEEDING DEVELOPMENTS

Let us now analyse developments succeeding Sri Aurobindo’s interview in 1909. Let us take for its apex the international chain work that was devised in favour ofIndia’s freedom by Jatindra Mukherjee, Sri Aurobindo’s “right-hand man”, known in history as the Indi-German Conspiracy : it was to receive apparently a great blow (Jatindra died fighting against a detachment of armed police, at Balasore, in  September 1915). Some historians were to consider this battle to be, however, the turning-point (“change, change” according to Sri Aurobindo ?) of the revolutionary Jugantar programme. Clinging to the Master’s vision, Jatindra believed that  after phases of individual martyrs and guerilla risings, time would be ripe for the Mass Movement. Almost inadvertently carried all before one by the surging tide of revolution, Gandhi was to find himself holding the helm.

On rectifying our perspective, we recall that since May 1908 – after  the individual martyrdom of Khudiram Basu and Prafulla Chaki leading to a number of increasingly repressive measures to terrorise the country, Jatindra had organised single-handed a spectacular fire-work of counter-repression consisting of various forms of hold-up and assassination of select anti-patriotic targets to rouse  popular conviction in the revolutionaries’ action and to prove the extent of the Government’s helplessness. Directly related to the Alipore case, Jatindra’s men promoted or committed four daring murders: (1) August 1908 : approver Naren Gosain, inside the prison, leading to the hanging of Kanailal Datta and Satyen Basu ; (2) November 1908 : Sub-Inspector of police  Nandalal Banerjee, in the streets of Calcutta, for having arrested Prafulla Chaki; (3) February 1909 : Public Prosecutor Ashutosh Biswas, inside the High Court, leading to the hanging of Charu Basu; (4) 24 January 1910 : Deputy Superintendent of police Shamsul Alam, dizzily active, with Biswas, to prove the guilt of the accused in the Alipore Case; he was shot dead in the corridor of the Calcutta High Court.[xv]

Without hesitation, James Campbell Kerr singled out Shamsul Alam for having “got up political cases and manufactured evidence, and that he was therefore justly removed. This view was evidently strongly impressed on the Chief Justice in the Howrah-Sibpur case.”[xvi] Nivedita wrote to Ratcliffe – reitering her comment on Asutosh Biswas – that Shamsul had deployed his inventive genius in supplying witnesses and training them so well that he became  an asset for the Chief Justice. Sri Aurobindo in his Bengali reminiscences of the prison days has left a telling portrait of Shamsul. Shortly before this incident, one day, after his Tamil lesson, Sri Aurobindo had asked : “Do you know what is pirentir nat tatta kopta ?” And, quite amused, had comforted his flabbergasted listeners  by supplying the answer : “This is how Birendranath Datta-Gupta is pronounced in Tamil.”[xvii] This proves that Sri Aurobindo had full knowledge of the mission Biren was to undertake. Gokhale was to inform Nivedita that Biren had been a favourite pupil of Father Brown of the Oxford Mission.[xviii] The District Magistrate of Khulna observed that henceforth, “The demeanour of the witnesses was a striking testimony to the terror which the gang has inspired.”[xix]

On 25 January 1910, “With the gloom of this assassination hanging over everyone”, Viceroy  Minto made a statement concerning the successive waves of [counter-] terrorism that pushed his government towards more and more pitiless repressions and, in his speech, Minto paid – unknowingly – a tribute to the ‘new spirit’, incarnated by  Jatindra Mukherjee, the supreme leader of the Extremist Movement, striving for the absolute political independence of India : “A spirit hitherto unknown to India has come into existence (…), a spirit of anarchy and lawlessness which seeks to subvert not only British rule but the Governments of Indian Chiefs…”[xx] Jatindra Mukherjee was arrested on 27 January 1910.

The Howrah Case involved charges against Jatindra and about fifty of his associates of waging war against the Crown and tampering with the loyalty of Indian soldiers. The Howrah-Shibpur unit was described as “the most active of all branches of the Revolutionary conspiracy”. Surjan Singh and Ramgopal of the 10th Jat Regiment stationed at Fort William of Calcutta were sworn  members of this unit. When the soldiers under their command preferred not to cross the Ganges to attend meetings there. Jatindra arranged with Dr Sarat Mitra  to receive them in Kidderpore. Since 1908, Surjan with Naren Chatterjee had been visiting barracks in Benares, Nainital, Lahore and Peshawar with credentials from the Party and the 10th Jat officers. Jatindra had developed this alternative contact as a complementary reinforcement to the efforts of  Swami Niralamba, which was to be taken up by disciples of Swami Dayanand and Rash Behari Bose : Har Dayal had been proud of his schooling from these mentors. A number of officers of the 10th Jats regiment were court-martialed for complicity in sedition, before it was disbanded and the corrupt soldiers were court-martialled in secret. Singling out Jatindra as the “one criminal”, Hardinge wrote to Chirol : “The 10th Jats case was part and parcel of the Howrah Gang case and, with the failure in the latter, the Government of Bengal realised the futility of proceeding with the former… Nothing could be worse (…) than the condition of Bengal and Eastern Bengal. There is practically no Government in  either province.[xxi] “(…) It is likely that Jatindra’s release put fresh heart into the people who had been contemplating further outrages but hesitating to act.”[xxii] Did not Sri Aurobindo warn : “The upheaval will have developed well enough to be visible to all” ?  

On the break up of the Jugantar, Mokshada had joined Kartik, as advisor,  sheltering party members, obtaining arms and disposing of stolen property. In spite of several charges, they were unanimously acquitted.  Resulting from the Bighati case, there was a fusion between Jogen Tagore’s Bhatpara group and Naren Bhattacharya, “a notable personage”, intimate with Mokshada. Nixon mentioned seven major outrages between 22 June 1908 and 15 April 1909, committed by this group.[xxiii] At this stage, the Police found the Province divided up as follows:

1)Calcutta: led by Indra Nandi

2) 24 Parganas,Howrah,Hooghly: Nanigopal Sengupta

3) Rajshahi, Nadia, Jessore,Hooghly: Jatindra Mukherjee

4) Natore, Dighapatiya, Amalpur: Satish Sarkar

5) Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rangpur,Jamalpur,Cooch Behar: Amaresh Kanjilal

6) Berhampur, Murshidabad : Suren Chakravarti

Nanigopal  and Jatindra  had originally been members of the Calcutta  Anushilan Samiti and acted consistently under Sri Aurobindo’s direct guidance, maintaining a constant collaboration. After quarrelling with Satish Basu, Nanigopal absorbed most of the members of Mokshada-cum-Kartik’s dispersed group, since the latter’s arrest. Amaresh and Satish Sarkar worked under Jatindra Mukherjee.  Belonging to Indra’s group (Atmonnati), Bepin Ganguli, Noren Bose and Noren Chatterji, too remained available to Jatindra’s policy.   These revolutionaries committed sixteen outrages between March 1908 and October 1909. Denham noted in 1909 on the Sarathi Jubak Mandali : “perhaps second only in importance to the Anushilan Samiti for the number of persons included in its ranks who actually took part in crimes of violence” : their spiritual guide was  Tarakhepa alias Tarapado Banerji, the “mysterious Sadhu, who wandered about Bengal, being most frequently heard of in the districts of Birbhum, Nadia or in Calcutta.” He was disciple of Bamakhepa of Tarapur  in Birbhum, “having possessed hypnotic power”. They collaborated with Jogendranath Tagore, “an undesirable member of the Tagore family”: his “influence with the revolutionary party is still considerable”; he served as a link “between the parties who work inBengal proper and theEastern Bengal, and theAssam dacoity gangs.” Denham knew that Kartik’s arrest was rather a shock to the members of this group.

Acquitted, Kartik was to be charged again with harbouring four of the revolutionary ‘bandits’, but again discharged by a Howrah jury. He was released on 27 December 1909, after having served a term of Rigorous Imprisonment in connection with the assault committed on Higginbothams as well as with the dacoities at Bajitpur and Bighati : leaders of the Nadia units – Jatindra Mukherjee and his uncle, the pleader Lalitkumar Chatterjee of Krishnagar –  received him with a hero’s ovation, as recorded by the approver Lalit Chakravarti nicknamed Benga.[xxiv] On 30 March 1910, Benga confessed that even before the Netra outrage, he had spent one day at Nanigopal’s, before Suresh Majumdar alias Paran took him to a pleader of the Calcutta High Court. He spent there two or three  days. The “Nimai chogra” took him by night train to Krishnagar. Nimai or Nirmalkumar was the son of the Government pleader Basantakumar Chatterjee, Jatindra Mukherjee’s uncle. He left Benga with the pleader Lalit Chatterjee’s mohurrir (clerk), Nibaran Chakravarti alias Keruda : the latter had bedding and food ready for Benga. Bholadanga zamindar’s son Manmatha Biswas “of our society”. After a few days, he returned toCalcutta.

In the meantime, Mokshada had gone back to Dhakain February 1910. In March 1910 an attempt was made to assassinate G.C. Denham of the Criminal Investigation Department and a very prominent figure of the Alipore conspiracy case. At the same time,  a “Strictly Confidential” note[xxv] added to Denham’s report, mentioned that connection was established between Suranath and Amarendra Chatterjee, editor of the Bengali Karmayogin and esteemed associate of Sri Aurobindo and Jatindra Mukherjee; the mess at 133 Lower Circular Road of Calcutta, served Amarendra and Makhanlal Sen for “seeing and conferring with the notorious (sic!]  Jatindra Mukherjee”.[xxvi] Amarendra  sent Basanta Biswas to Benares. “In or about this same year (1910) Gyanananda Swami (Jogeshwar Mukherjee), a great friend of Mokshada, who was for sometime secretary of  the Benares-based Bharat Dharma Mahamandal, was in correspondence with Amarendra Nath Chatterjee in Bengal.”[xxvii] Finding Bengal too hot to hold him, Jatindra’s associate Kiran Mukherjee visited Mokshada at Benares in 1911, and stayed with Sarada Maitra of Rangpur. Mokshada returned  to Calcutta, in 1911:  in February, the revolutionaries shot dead Srish Chakravarti, the head constable of Calcutta Police, who was a former member of the Jugantar gang, turned informer. According to F.C. Daly: “It is a singular coincidence, if it is only a coincidence, that this murder took place on the evening of the day on which Jatindra Nath Mukherjee (…) was set free from the dock at the High Court was strongly suspected in this connection. Descendant of Mokshada’s Bhatpara group, the Baranagar group reunited a series of small samitis (e.g. the Jubak Samiti with its clubs and poor fund) in the north of Calcutta  and in Howrah on the other side of the river Hooghly and  operated since 1907; they had contacts with Jogen Tagore, Mokshada and the Ramakrishna Mission.

Again, in December 1911, Mokshada was seen in Benares and, in the same month, an Inspector of Police was shot dead : the man was “in possession of information regarding a dangerous organiser of political dacoities named Pandit Mokshada Charan Samadhyaya.” E.H. Corbet, Superintendent of Police, noted that Mokshada “was a bosom friend of the Bengali police informer. The matter was referred to Government and I was sent to Benares to interview the Commissioner and Magistrate, with the result that he was arrested (…) A strong and elaborate case under Section 110(f), Criminal Procedure Code.”  Mokshada was to have a conviction for three years; but it was decided after the Durbar – Coronation ceremony – to drop the proceeding. Mokshada was warned not to come back to Benares again.

Jatindra Mukherjee and  Rasbehari Bose, however, visited Benares in May 1912 and associated with Sachin Sanyal,  Mokshada and Suranath. Soon, Sachin became the sole regional leader. Vinayak Rao Kaple was one of its members. Sarada Maitra of Rangpur and Satish Mukherjee of Barisal frequently visited Benares; the latter associated with Mokshada the members of the Sebak Samiti. During 1913, Jogen Tagore led a series of dacoities; in 1915  he got contact with Bipin Ganguli’s followers including  Probhas De and Harish Sikdar, and  came to know members of other groups including Atulkrishna Ghosh and Ananta Haldar (all of them acting under Jatindra Mukherjee). Bipin was sentenced to five years Rigorous Imprisonment on2 August 1915 in the Agarpara Dacoity Case.

                  IV- FURTHER SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS

As an under-trial prisoner at Alipore Central Jail (1910-1911), Jatindra had knowledge of Bernhardi’s expectation that the Pan-Islamic current in the Middle Eastwould get a momentum by joining hands with the Nationalists in India. Inside the prison, Jatindra had an “opportunity of infusing more cohesion and a sense of oneness among the different groups from which the accused were drawn.”[xxviii] According to Sailendra Nath Ghosh – who, in the company of Meghnad Saha and other brilliant science students – received  Jatindra’s guidance, “He inspired all who were associated with him in the revolutionary movement with sentiments of absolute personal devotion.”[xxix] An appreciative Nixon further enhanced these sentiments about Jatindra : “He seems to have had a most extraordinary influence over his followers, who looked upon him with something approaching reverence and awe.[xxx] Home-interned, Jatindra managed, however, to meet the German crown Prince on visit toCalcutta and obtain from him a promise that in case of a general rising in India against the British empire, Germany could voluntarily help with arms and ammunition.

And Nixon noticed – with a touch of admiration – the rigorous command Jatindra had over the violence he had unleashed since 1908, before going to prison. For the Police, the year 1911 commenced a period of lull till Jatindra resumed activities three weeks after the declaration of the World War in 1914 : on 26 August, his men bagged fifty Mauser pistols with ample rounds of ammunition from the Calcutta store-house of the English gunmaker, Roda & Co. At once, Jatindra distributed them to various regional leaders.[xxxi]  At this juncture, “Chatto” or Virendranath Chattopadhyay – on behalf of the Berlin Committee federating patriotic students from India – signed a contract with the Kaiser’s ministers confirming  supply of arms : Count Bernstorff, German ambassador at Washington, received orders from Berlin to appoint Von Papen, the military Attaché, to charter and load steamers from the Californian coast for arms delivery on the coast of the Bay of Bengal via Far East. The Gadhar members joined the Berlin scheme and organised a massive return to India for participating in the rising. In a pincer’s movement, an expedition from Berlin led by Mahendra Pratap, on its way to Kabul, was to raise an army of liberation with Indian soldiers from various British regiments imprisoned by Germany, before storming the gates of Delhi; a more significant military base conceived by Taraknath Das and managed by the Gadhar from San Francisco had been waiting at the Thai-Burmese border to head for Calcutta, to occupy Fort William and proceed to Delhi.

At every step, Chatto’s men reached Calcuttato keep Jatindra abreast of the developments. In November 1914, Satyen Sen returned with Vishnu Ganesh Pingley, Kartar Singh Sarabha and an important batch of Gadhar members. Tegart recorded a further attempt to tamper with some Sikh troops at the Dakshineswar gunpowder magazine. The troops in question were the 93rd Burmans (a regiment which was to be sent to Mesopotamia). In addition to the efforts made by the Baranagore party in this direction, this had a certain amount of success : Jatindra Mukherjee with Satyen Sen visited the garden at Baranagore and interviewed these Sikhs.[xxxii]

Pingley had several talks with Jatindra  Mukherjee who sent a note through him and Kartar Singh to Rash Behari Bose, towards the third week of December. Pingley informed Bose that four thousand men had already come from Americaand many more would arrive when the rebellion broke out.[xxxiii] From Benares, Bose sent Pingley with Sachin Sanyal to Amritasar to meet Mula Singh (who had received Satyen and Pingley at Shanghai).   Invited by Bose to appraise the situation in the North and expedite preparations for the proposed rising, Jatindra with his family, Atul Ghose and Naren Bhattacharya set out “for pilgrimage” to  Benares.[xxxiv]   

On 17 June 1915, Naren Bhattacharya, Jatindra’s emissary, returned from his two months’ trip to Batavia, met the Leader at his hide-out at Kaptipada, near Balasore. Following instructions from Chatto, he made a satisfactory deal with the German authorities concerning financial aid and the supply of arms. Through the German Consul-General, Naren was put in touch with Theodor and Emil,  busy running a plantation in Batavia. They  assured Naren  that a cargo of arms and ammunition was already on its way, “to assist the Indians in a revolution.” The Helfferich brothers gave Naren some money and, following Naren’s advice, arranged to send more to three addresses in Calcutta.

The Czech journalist Ross Hedviček admits that  Jatindra expected to receive arms and other helps from Germany to free India. Had E.V. Voska  not interfered in this history, today nobody would have heard about Mahatma Gandhi and the father of the Indian nation would have  been Bagha Jatin. Voska learnt it through his network and, as pro-American, pro-British and anti-German, he spoke of it to T.G. Masaryk[xxxv]. Masaryk informed the Americans, the Americans informed the British. Bagha Jatin died in 1915. And India had to wait for another thirty years to have her democracy. T.G. Masaryk mentions all these facts in the English version of  The Making of a State.[xxxvi]

    

                                                      V- CONCLUSION

When the Mass Movement attained its final form in August 1942, having considerably drifted away from the hard and fast non-violent (ahimsa) principles of the Chauri Chaura days, much of its details reminded of Jatindra’s own method of uprising : first of all, the very slogan – Quit India! – resembled more of a lion’s roaring than lending one’s cheek for a second slap. Point by point the Rowlatt Report can very well confirm the similarity between this programme and the insurrection planned by Jatindra in February 1915.  Several  guerilla risings following the model of Jatindra’s “first trench battle” had kept on inspiring the patriots’ will to victory :

(1) the encounter of revolutionaries with the armed Police at Telijana in Pabna, in 1917;

(2) the skirmish between absconding revolutionaries in Gauhati, on 7 and 9 January 1918;

(3) three militants fighting against the police till their last bullets at Kaltabazar in Dacca, on 15 June 1918;

(4) the successful guerilla fight seizingChittagongunder the leadership of Surya Sen in April 1930;

(5) the heroic encounter of Chandrasekhar Azad with the armed police on 21 February1931, in Alfred Park at Allahabad. Crowning all, the Indian National Army under Subhas Chandra Bose was fast proceeding with the blue-print left behind by Jatindra Mukherjee, commemorating the spirit of the rising in 1857.[xxxvii]

                                            *

                                      References

Political trouble in India: A Confidential Report, by James Campbell Ker, 1917, repr. 1973

“Notes on the Growth of the Revolutionary Movement in Bengal (1905-1911)” by F.C. Daly, D.I.G. Special Branch, Bengal, in Terrorism in Bengal [abbreviation TIB], Ed. Amiya K. Samanta, Director, Intelligence Branch, Government of  West Bengal, Calcutta, 1995, Vol. I

“An Account of the Revolutionary Organisations in Bengal, other than the Dacca Anushilan Samiti” by J.C. Nixon, Home Department, in TIB, Vol. II

“Notes on Revolutionary Activity in Benares” by G.C. Denham, followed by a “Strictly Confidential” note by E.H. Corbet and “a few details added” by C.W.E. Sands  in TIB, Vol. V

“Connections with the Revolutionary Organization in Bihar and Orissa, 1906-1916” by W. Sealy in TIB, Vol. V

First Spark of Revolution, by Arun Chandra Guha, Orient Longman’s, 1971

Sadhak biplabi Jatindranath [abbr. Jatindra], by Prithwindra Mukherjee, West Bengal State Book  Board,Calcutta, 1990

Bagha Jatin : Life and Times of Jatindranath Mukherjee, by Prithwindra Mukherjee, National Book Trust, New Delhi, 2010

Les racines intellectuelles du mouvement d’indépendance de l’Inde (1893-1918), by Prithwindra Mukherjee, Editions Codex-France, 2010

Several Wikipedia articles signed by Prithwindra Mukherjee under the pen-name Bob Clive.


[i] Deutschland und der Nächste Krieg (“Germany and the Next War”), Verlag Cotta, Stuttgart

[ii] Terrorism in Bengal, [TIB], Vol.V, p137

[iii] “Connections with Bihar and Orissa”, in TIB, vol. V, p104

[iv] “Water from the Ganges”

[v] Untouchables, an abusive term for non-Hindus, here used for foreigners

[vi] Ker, p25

[vii] Denham in TIB, Vol.V, p155

[viii] F.C. Daly, in TIB, Vol. I, p18

[ix] Sâdhak-biplabî jatîndranâth [Jatindranath] p479 

[x] First Spark of Revolution [First], pp116-117

[xi] TIB, vol. V, p150

[xii] TIB, vol. V, p152

[xiii] TIB, vol. V, Sealy, pp117-119

[xiv] TIB, Vol. I, p34

[xv] ICPP 8430/83, July 1910, Statements of B. Dattagupta, 19-20 February 1910 ; cf ; op. cit., p.173

[xvi] KJC, p320

[xvii] Smritikatha (‘reminiscences’) by Suresh Chandra Chakravarti, who was the younger brother of the first martyr Prafulla Chakravarti, killed in Deoghar during an experiment. Published by Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry, March 1962 p.32

[xviii] Nivedita’s letter dated 3 March 1910 (cf: Nivedita Lokamata, Vol. III, pp48-49

[xix] J & P/1050/175, 10 December 1910 ; cf : loc. cit.

[xx] MTP, M ;1092, Viceroy’s speech ; cf : India under Morley and Minto,  by M.N. Das,  pp121-122

[xxi] Hardinge Papers, Book 81, Volume II, No. 231

[xxii] Daly’s Report, TIB, vol.I, p43

[xxiii] TIB, vol.II, p531

[xxiv] Jatindranath, p196, p222

[xxv] TIB, vol. V, p184

[xxvi] op. cit. p193

[xxvii] TIB, vol. V, p184

[xxviii] First Spark of Revolution, p.176

[xxix] Asia, Vol. XXVII (1927), Nos 7, 8, 9

[xxx] TIB, Vol. II, p.592

[xxxi] Op. cit. Vol. II, p.544

[xxxii] TIB, Vol. III, p.505

[xxxiii] Rowlatt, §121

[xxxiv] Militant Nationalism in India, by Bimanbihari Majumdar, 1966, p167.; also A.C. Bose, pp.161-162

[xxxv] Tomáš Masaryk (1850-1937), the first President of the Czech Republic that he founded in 1918. Also  Zletopisu třetího odboje [Extract from the Records of the Third  Resistance] by Zora Dvořáková,   Nakladatelství Hribal,Prague, ISBN 80-900-892-3-2.

[xxxvi] The Making of a State: Memoirs and Observations, 1914-1918, London, 1927,  pp. 50, 221, 242.

[xxxvii] biplabi jîban’er smriti, Jadugopal Mukhopadhyaya, Indian Associated Publishers, Calcutta 1956 (1st edition), p.604.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

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5 Comments

  1. Srikant J. said,

    October 21, 2011 at 8:54 am

    Dear Prithwin-da,

    A great and eminent wrok of a very great epoch of our revolutionary movement, when Sri Aurobindo was in the thick of it.

    As a kid in the green group, we young boys used to whisper to each other about Boro-da ( your father) and your family.

    As a young man, I had of course seen the bravery and heard from Kiran Vyas later the heroic fight that Togo your younger brother has put up on that one night of February 11th of 1965 during anti-Hindi agitation. Togo probably suffers physically even today.

    I bow down today remembering the deeds of valor of your grand-father and your family for this nation and this Ashram !

    Yours Sincerely,
    Srikant.

  2. Prasenjit Sen said,

    October 22, 2011 at 4:19 pm

    Prithwinda , it is an amazing history. I wonder whether the youth of the country will care to read these heroic achievements by some noble souls. Unfortunately in free India the “Satyameva Jayate ” exists only in the lifeless emblem.Today, if one does not unflinchinh loyalty to Nehru and Gandhi and does not repeat the names in every third sentence he becomes an outcaste.Internet is the best media for spreading the true history of freedom struggle.
    Our Love and respect to you on your Birthdaycomplete 75 glorious year s inthe service of The Mother. –Prasenjit–

  3. Prema Nandakumar said,

    October 31, 2011 at 5:33 am

    Dear Anurag:

    May I add my good wishes to Dr. Prithwindra on this happy occasion of his 75th birthday. I knew him first as a poet!

    I have read this interview (which opens the article) in the Tamil original. It is good to have the details of the historical background.

    With good wishes,

    Prema

  4. Biswajit Ganguly said,

    October 31, 2011 at 5:37 am

    Thanx.

    This reminds me of many remarkable incidents in the life of Sri Aurobindo.

    Sri Aurobindo always protected his associates and the protective umbrella fortunately has its continuous extension towards future generation. As the instances are many I restrain myself quoting the names of those famous associates and families. Fortunately the protection continued through the Mother and we enjoy the outcomes. Prithinda is one of those child of the Mother living within that precious aura. My salute.

    Biswajit Ganguly

  5. August 10, 2014 at 1:57 pm

    Importance of the prime numbers and the survival rules with rhythmicity of planets and the space and the universe (Multi-verse)

    MahaYuga is 10time of KALIYUGA as a 432 000 which is 432 0000 years. And if we make a mathematical series of such Mahayugas it will be as 1MY, 2 MY 3 MY …NxMY and so on.
    Hear 15MY = 15 x 432 0000 =648 00000 =64.8Mn years which is more accurately close to the KT period series of 65mn approximate years of KT boundary period. More deatils at later stage in this mail.

    Vedic geology calculations and Hints :
    For more accurate read the report of Iridium (Geo Chemistry report) eruption layers at Anjar decan trap layers and its Geochemistry findings which also suggests that KT time to be 64.8mn years.

    Compositional studies on organic matter from iridium enriched Anjar intertrappean sediments: Deccan volcanism and palaeo-environmental implications during the Cretaceous / Tertiary boundary

    Compositional studies on organic matter from iridium enriched …
    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML
    any possible iridium rich layer within the Deccan vol-. cano-sedimentary sequence (Rochia … can Intertrappeans at Anjar, Kutch. In: Ryder, G., Fastovsky, …
    http://www.ucm.es/info/estratig/JIG/vol31/11shrivas.pdf

    Every thing is very regular and rhythmic on the Earth and universe – Multiverse in the Space and so the earth and the life on the Earth has survived so long and will survive so long till the Earth and the Sun will survive in the Space.

    Nothing dangerous is happening so quickly (every alternate years or so) on the Earth eg – weather destruction , volcanic , tectonic or Tsunami which can create such a destruction to destroy the life on the Earth so need not to be worried of every alternate years and so nothing to bother of years in series of 2, 4, 6, 8, ….2N.XN and so on But still is happening very rhythmic and regularly

    Let us take an example – say if the weather destruction patterns is destroying every few years than it may happen in series of 1w, 2w, 3w, …. Xw and so on. Though we need to keep long records of the weather pattern . eg CO2 records, temperature highs, freezing earth , etc

    Similarly earth quake patterns may be in series of multiples f some numbers according to study and predictions that the earthquake id overdue and can happen any time in Tibetan plate. But do not know when. The Earth quake in Anjar happened in 1956 and followed in the region in 2001 with a rhythmicity of multiples of the 45 years which is again a multiples of 5×9 series . But we do not have complete record of such in the region but 1819 earthquake was approximately about 3X45=135 years back (1956-1819=137)

    So the series may be in the patterns of like this – 1Eq , 2Eq 3Eq ….XEq and so on .
    Similarly Volcanic patterns may be like this pattern – 1Vo , 2Vo 3Vo ….XVo and so on .
    Similarly Tsunami patterns may be like this pattern – 1St , 2St 3St ….XSt and so on

    Those mathematical series patterns gives us figures of multiples of the some digit numbers means NONE of those patterns have the Prime numbers in those series patterns.

    Similar way the Space patterns are also happening very regularly in the series patterns eg meteor showers, So the series may be in the patterns of like this – 1Me , 2Me 3Me ….XMe and so on.
    Asteroid impact is also regular eg destructions of the Dino. In KT period at about 65 mn years interval and so geological period are also showing this pattern of the 65mn , 130mn and 195mn years pattern, let us say in the form of KT period follows in the series of So the series may be in the patterns of like this – 1KT , 2KT 3KT ….XKT and so on and or is due any time ?

    So what is the importance of the series of multiplications of the different time patterns? Series do not have the PRIME NUMBERS but itself can form the series of its own. So prime numbers time interval is the survival time from any such natural disastrous and space destruction time patterns. So as to survive the life on the Earth and the Earth in the Space.

    Let’s have the look at the planetary aspects of the major planets and influence believed in astrology but in the form of astronomical data. Jupiter rounded time interval is 12 years and Rahu Ketu – crossing points in space planes of the planetary orbits. Which is 18 years and patterns of Saturn is 30 years. All have one common number component of the 6 and we break that is the multiple of two smallest consecutive prime numbers. eg 2×3=6. – but the series formed by the no 6 has none of the prime number in the series.

    If any one believes in that respect or not that’s not a matter but mathematical series do say the rhythmical – and prime numbers are never encountered in those series.

    There is strange about the number of six which man believes or not does not make any difference to the mathematics. And 6 is a special pattern of the series in planetary aspects and much more and so net prime number is 7 to form the week – 7 days of the week.

    Let us study the numbers 6 and so we can take in to consideration of no 6 importance over and above the planetary aspects and days of the week and 2×3=6 multiple of the of two smallest consecutive prime numbers

    Many do not consider 6 as a happy number and if we give that number to any one may be unhappy as with number 13 though is the prime number.
    6= 2×3 (six has characteristic of its component 2 as a perfect digit)

    Six includes 2 so include all characteristics of divided by two. As in the series numbers are multiples of 2. and also as the six has component 3 which is part of digit 9 as well (3×3=9) so as to give the characteristic of max digit 9 and its series. And power of 3s gives that characteristic to six as being that’s component.

    Six has 1, 2, 3, as their part 1x2x3=6 and inverse of 1/1 +1/2+1/3+1/6= 2 gives its characteristic of its component digit 2.

    Power of six eg square of 6=36 and onwards , 3=6=9 max digit character because of its component 3 , 6x6x6 = 216 , 2+1+6=9.

    Thus six gives characteristic of both of its component 2 and 3 so in the form of the mixture of both of its components characteristics as 2s and 3s like as the ARDH NARISHWAR SHIVa FORM.

    Also all the prime numbers follows one pattern related to six that either prime number +1/or -1 makes them multiple of six as P+_1=N6 eg 7-1=6 , 13-1= 2×6 , 97-1=16×6, 73-1=6×12, and also 71+1 =6×12. also 1291-1= 6×215 and 1361+1 =227×6.

    To avoid the frequency of the destructive events and the planetary aspects of six and its series and also multiple of next prime number 7 series –The Prime number itself has the advantage of the survival and the regeneration intervals.

    Let us see now the statistical part of the chances of the frequency of the meteor/asteroid impact to the Earth to destroy the life on the Earth.
    Most studies has suggests that the chances of the destruction of the life on the Earth by the impact of the meteor/asteroid is just a 1% in 50 centuries so as a 1% in 5000 years and so approximately 500 000 years life on the Earth will have drastic impact. But that’s a just approximate not accurately.

    Now lets have a look to the Mathematical and science part of the Vedic’s. Smallest time interval for life destruction is given in the form of KALIYUGA as a 432000 years which is more accurately figured than rounded figure of 500 000 years.

    Now MahaYuga is 10time of KALIYUGA as a 432 000 which is 432 0000 years. And if we make a mathematical series of such Mahayugas it will be as 1MY, 2 MY 3 MY …NxMY and so on.
    Hear 15MY = 15 x 432 0000 =648 00000 =64.8Mn years which is more accurately close to the KT period series of 65mn approximate years of KT boundary period.

    For more accurate read the report of Iridium (Geo Chemistry report) eruption layers at anjat decan trap layers and its Geochemistry findings which also suggests that KT time to be 64.8mn years.

    The Geological time interval of such approximate 65mn years of the KT periods also has the series, pattern of the 65mn , 130mn and 195mn years. this patterns may form the series of – 1KT , 2KT 3KT ….XKT and so on but will avoid the PRIME numbers to destroy the life totally and will allow the life to regenerate and survival of the some form of the life on the Earth from all forms of the disasters on the Earth and from the space as well.
    So the regeneration of the life should follow the period of Prime numbers interval and that has been explained in the mathematical form of MANAVANTAR – WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF SUCH MAHAYUGAS OF 71 Mahayuga = 1MANU – Manvantar period.

    Eg as per Vedas life on the earth is expected to last further 2.16 bn years as an Andromeda galaxy will collide with our milky way to generate billions degree temperature to make destruction and regenerations of new stars and galaxy formations. (this period will be NxKT periods of intervals as all manvantar period finish at this stage and these are multiples of KT period intervals as stated before).

    So the remaining period of 2.16Bn years are divided in 500 mahayugas and that’s divided to 7 manavantar periods of 71 mahayugas. (past period not counted) as a whole period of 4.32Bn years are divided in 1000 mahayugas and that’s divided to 14 manavantar periods of 71 mahayugas.

    Here 71 Mahayuga period is Prime number period to avoid all events of 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and all KT period intervals of 15 Mahaygas as explained before as well as series of planetary aspects of multiples of six and its series and also that of 7 next prime numbers series.

    Trigonometry and Pythagoras: Prime numbers has also rules of Pythagoras formation and only prime numbers can do that and none of the others. Each prime number ReGenerate a New size of triangle

    I would like to give a RULE of trigonometry (So called Pythagoras – but is a Vedic source of Prime numbers and Trigonometry)
    E.g. triangles of the sides with prime number dimension only can form new form of the rectangular triangle . see following examples and carry on forward to find new.

    4, 5 and 3 (P)
    12, 13 and 5 (P)
    24, 25 and 7 (P)
    60, 61 and 11 (P)
    84, 85 and 13 (P)
    144, 145 and 17 (P)

    X=?, Y=? and 19 (P) solve this and then
    X=??, Y=?? and Z?? (P) solve this onwards

    Similarly Coding and decoding in the Deciphering process of the secret codes and internet security and hacking security all involves the PRIME Numbers in bigger and multiple forms. eg
    1757051 = 1291 prime number key 1(prime KEY P) and x 1361(prime KEY q) Prime number key 2 and that’s locks the key functions as security in transactions and security processes

    Video demonstration of the experiments of 4 hours in five lecture series of University of Oxford – academic to explain the mysteries of the world of numbers- are available from the oxford University departments of maths,

    Science Group Of INDIA.
    President:”Kutch Science Foundation”.
    Founder :”Kutch Amateurs Astronomers Club – Bhuj – Kutch”.
    http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/scienceclubofindia
    http://in.groups.yahoo.com/group/kutchscience
    Do visit our ABOVE Clubs/Groups of Science Groups of India.


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